Nicotine and opiates have become different drugs, but the endpoint, with respect to the control of dopamine signaling, is nearly identical. This research is important to scientists because it demonstrates overlap in the way the two drugs work, complementing previous research that showed overlapping effects on physiology of the ventral tegmenal region, another key portion of the brain’s incentive circuitry. ‘In addition, it demonstrates the seriousness of tobacco addiction, equating its grasp on the individual to that of heroin. It reinforces the actual fact that these addictions are very physiological in nature and that breaking away from the habit is obviously more than just mind over matter,’ says McGehee. This ongoing work is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, T32GM07839 and F31DA023340 to JPB, DA015918 and DA019695 to DSM..This yr's recipient is esteemed innovator and educator Bruce E. Spivey, M.D., M.S., M.Ed. Dr. Spivey's achievements period almost every section of the profession. He was the 1st CEO of the American Academy of Ophthalmology when it split from the American Academy of Otolaryngology in1978. Under his leadership, the Academy experienced tremendous growth. It shaped its charitable basis and developed a code of ethics for the job of ophthalmology. He also led the establishment of the Ophthalmic Mutual INSURANCE PROVIDER, the biggest insurer of ophthalmologists in the United States.