All of the diagnoses of emmonsia species contamination were made following the intro of our broad-range fungal PCR assay in July 2008 . Clinical Features of the 13 Individuals with Emmonsia Species Disease The median age of the patients was 34 years . Eight of the 13 individuals were men. All 13 presented with proof clinically advanced HIV disease and with suprisingly low CD4+ T-cell counts . All the patients were anemic, and all experienced widespread skin damage.Histologic Analysis We fixed fresh tissue samples that were obtained on autopsy with formalin and embedded the samples in paraffin, using program histologic procedures. Fetal gentle bones required no decalcification. Other Analyses The methods that people useful for gene-expression arrays, polymerase-chain-response and sequencing analyses, protein immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting are described at length in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of the article at NEJM.org. All digital pictures were enhanced for brightness and contrast by using Photoshop Elements 5.0 .